A hurricane is essentially a heat engine, a rotating storm fueled by moisture from the warm ocean. The prevailing theory as to how hurricanes weaken after landfall is that once they lose that source of fuel, friction with land causes their spinning to slow down.Dr. Chakraborty likened it to a swirling cup of tea. “Over the ocean, because the moisture supply is there for the heat engine, you’re constantly stirring the tea,” he said. But when it hits land the supply is cut off, the stirring stops and friction causes the swirling to slow“Importantly, thermodynamics plays no role” in this process of slowing, according to the theory, he said.What he and his co-author suggest, however, is that the moisture remaining in the storm plays a thermodynamic role, affecting the rate at which the storm weakens. And in a warming climate, with warmer sea-surface temperatures, there is more moisture remaining in the storm.“Once we understand that moisture plays a key role, the connection with climate becomes evident,” Dr. Chakraborty said.Their hurricane simulations allowed them to test the idea that moisture plays a role by creating “dry” hurricanes, without moisture, that decayed much more rapidly than normal ones. The models also allowed them to determine that factors like topography and the weather inland played less of a role in storms’ weakening.Dr. Camargo said one potential weakness of the study was that the models used were, by necessity, rather simple. Modeling hurricanes after landfall is difficult, she said. “It’s a hard problem. The models have to capture a lot of things that are going on — the interaction with topography, for instance.”“I don’t know if what they did in the model is the best way to represent landfalling hurricanes,” Dr. Camargo added. “But at least in this model, it seems to agree with their idea.”Dr. Chakraborty said he was not surprised there was some skepticism about the findings. “Overall, our study challenges widely-held ideas about hurricane decay,” he said. “I hope this will spur more research and shed new light on this important area that is long thought to be well understood.” In studying the effects of climate change on hurricanes, scientists have focused on what occurs over water, when storms are forming and strengthening, picking up heat and moisture as they churn over the ocean.But a new study looks at what happens after hurricanes make landfall and work their way inland. The research suggests that climate change is affecting storms during this phase of their life as well, causing them to weaken more slowly and remain destructive for longer.- Advertisement – The findings could have implications for how emergency-management agencies prepare for storms post-landfall.In the study, published Wednesday in the journal Nature, Lin Li and Pinaki Chakraborty of the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University in Japan analyzed data from North Atlantic hurricanes that made landfall from 1967 to 2018, looking at the decay in intensity, or wind speed, of the storms in the first day after hitting land. One prominent hurricane researcher, Kerry Emanuel of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said he was skeptical of the findings. In an email message, Dr. Emanuel said he disagreed with the researchers’ theoretical argument and that the data and simulations, “while suggestive, do not definitively prove the case that decay is slower in warmer climates independent of other factors, such as storm size.” – Advertisement – But other researchers said the study was compelling and opened up a new field of hurricane research, on their behavior over land. Even weakened, winds from these storms can topple trees and power lines, damage homes and cause other destruction well inland. Dan Chavas, an atmospheric scientist at Purdue University who wrote an article accompanying the paper in Nature, said the work was “definitive in identifying a topic almost no one has thought about and could be very important.”Suzana Camargo, a hurricane researcher at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, a part of Columbia University, said that she and colleagues published a study last year that showed that stronger hurricanes produced more precipitation after making landfall.In the new study, she said, “they are saying that moisture stays in the storm for a while, and that completely makes sense with what we saw in our study.” They found that while 50 years ago a typical storm would have lost more than three-quarters of its intensity in the first 24 hours, when it might travel several hundred miles inland, now it would only lose about half.- Advertisement – – Advertisement – “The decay has slowed down tremendously over the last 50 years,” Dr. Chakraborty said in an interview. “There may very well be a climatic link.”Comparing the data on decay with changes in sea-surface temperatures, and then using simulations of hurricanes moving onto land, the scientists discovered what they say is the link: Rising ocean temperatures linked to global warming are causing the storms to weaken more slowly, even after storms move away from the source of the moisture.The scientists cautioned that there were caveats to their research, among them that they used a relatively small data set — only 71 hurricanes made landfall over five decades.
Tweet HealthLifestyleLocalNews Increased purchase of ‘Pill 72’ worries pharmacist by: – July 3, 2013 A local pharmacist has expressed concern about the increased purchase of emergency contraceptives among the youth.Pharmacist Carlton Lanquedoc said in an interview with members of the media on Wednesday, 3rd July, that he is concerned about the purchase of morning after pills on a daily basis. Morning after pill or Pill 72 is an emergency contraceptive which can be bought without a prescription. It can be used to prevent pregnancy up to five days (120 hours) after unprotected sex.Pharmacist Carlton Lanquedoc said while morning after pill is ideal, persons should also guard against sexual transmitted diseases, as the increased purchase of the pill means that these people are engaging in unprotected sex. “It’s not that we have a problem in selling the morning after pill, but basically what it is saying to us is that lots of people are having unprotected sex and that’s of concern for us as medical professionals,” Mr Lanquedoc said.Morning after pill or Pill 72 is an emergency contraceptive which can be bought without a prescription.He noted that one of the things people tend to concentrate more on is the risk of pregnancy, however they should know that they are at risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s).Mr Lanquedoc said further that several persons have been coming forward to treat sexual transmitted infections cases. “Not only HIV/AIDS as pronounced on the media, but also the Chlamydia, the Syphilis, the Human papillomavirus (HPV), we are seeing cases of bacterial cystitis, Gonorrhea; all of this we are seeing cases of frequently,” he said. Mr Lanquedoc, who is employed at a local pharmacy, said on a daily basis between 6-10 morning after pills are sold his establishment. “I’m sure if we were to tabulate with our two stores it might increase a bit more. It’s generally young people; most of these young people are slightly below the age of forty which is usually the same catchment age that you would see with HIV/AIDS in terms of the prevalence. So it is a concern from a health perspective,” he said. Mr Lanquedoc has called on the general public to be more conscious of their health and protect themselves against diseases. Dominica Vibes News Share Share 137 Views 8 comments Sharing is caring! Share
GLENDALE, Ariz. — Dodgers pitchers and catchers reported for spring training earlier this week. Position players will join them for the first official full-squad workout Tuesday.Even country singer Garth Brooks has even been on the field with the Pittsburgh Pirates in Florida. But Bryce Harper, Manny Machado, Craig Kimbrel and dozens more major-league free agents do not have jobs.“It’s not great, not great for the game by any means,” said Dodgers left-hander Clayton Kershaw – whose three-year, $93 million contract extension signed in November has been topped by just one free-agent contract this offseason (Patrick Corbin’s six-year, $140 million deal with the Washington Nationals).“You’ve got two guys that are 26 years old, superstars in the game (Harper and Machado). Obviously, I don’t know what’s going on on either side. I don’t know what type of offers they’ve been given. But you’d like to see them signed – as well as the 100 or so other guys that deserve a spot. … That’s a pretty good team out there still. There’s a lot of good players. I don’t know where it’s at with everybody as far as the offers they’re getting, it just doesn’t seem right that they’re not in spring training or close to it at this point.” Newsroom GuidelinesNews TipsContact UsReport an Error Cody Bellinger homer gives Dodgers their first walkoff win of season Dodgers hit seven home runs, sweep Colorado Rockies Dodgers’ Max Muncy trying to work his way out of slow start Fire danger is on Dave Roberts’ mind as Dodgers head to San Francisco How Dodgers pitcher Ross Stripling topped the baseball podcast empire The estimate of 100 is probably inflated. But there are a few dozen legitimate major-leaguers still unsigned – and it’s hard to argue that the group doesn’t include difference-makers who could change a team’s fortune.“It’s tough. Things change, I guess,” Dodgers closer Kenley Jansen said. “You don’t want to see the season start and those guys not have a team. That’s not good for baseball. It doesn’t matter what anybody says. Any time that Clayton Kershaw, Bryce Harper, Mike Trout, Manny Machado, Craig Kimbrel, those type of guys, don’t have a team that’s not good for baseball.”The Dodgers’ players union representative last year, Justin Turner points out it was a slow free-agent market before the 2018 season as well.“I feel like the last two years free agency has moved at an incredibly slow pace and it’s obviously not a good thing for anyone,” Turner said. “Especially when you have two guys of that caliber of player and they don’t have a job yet, there’s definitely something wrong.“Everyone has a thought and an opinion (about what is causing the slowdown) but it doesn’t really matter until we figure out what we’re going to do.” Dodgers manager Dave Roberts said Seager is “essentially a full-go with everything outside the throwing.” Seager has begun taking batting practice, running the bases, fielding ground balls at full range and long-tossing to 135 feet. The main item left on his checklist is to start making throws from across the diamond at different angles.“There were some balls he was challenged on going into the hole that I saw and sort of cringed at times,” Roberts said after watching Seager go through an infield workout. “But he said he felt good. It felt normal. He felt quick. It was very encouraging.”ALSORight-hander Ross Stripling was not in camp Saturday as a precaution due to an upper respiratory illness. Many players – including stars like Justin Verlander and Buster Posey – have been vocal on social media about their disenchantment with the situation. Some have pointed out the need for changes in the system. Cardinals veteran Adam Wainwright went so far this week as to suggest a players’ strike is “100 percent” likely if things don’t change.“I think it’s just frustrating,” Turner said. “Obviously, there’s a lot of anger, displeasure because guys know this year it’s Manny and Bryce but next year it could be that player. There’s a lot of that going on.“Also … we show up every year because we want to win a championship. I mean, there’s nothing else out there. The awards are great, but at the end of the day it’s about trying to win a championship. When you have that caliber of player that are still available, I feel like a lot of guys think those guys would help their team and are trying to figure out why aren’t we taking advantage of these guys still being out there?”Management’s unspoken response is that players like Harper and Machado put themselves in this position with talk of 10-, 12-year contracts and $400 million windfalls. Other free agents made the same mistake to a lesser extent.“The way baseball works is the people before you sign deals and they set the market. And if you come along and you’re better than those guys, on paper, then in theory you should get the years and the money they got,” Turner said. “So for owners to start pointing fingers and saying players are greedy, whether they think those (past) deals were bad or not, they’re the ones who gave those deals so they dropped the ball. Now they’re punishing us for giving out these long deals, which is not how the game works historically. You give out these deals and someone is always going to come along and be better than that guy and someone is going to come along and be better than that guy.“With the way the money in this game is going and growing and growing every year, revenue is going up ever year – I think it’s fairly easy for players to be confused that the free-agent market isn’t growing along with the revenue.”Turner also pointed out how long most players have to wait to become free agents – the payoff “at the end of the arbitration-slash-team control rainbow,” as veteran Rich Hill put it in making a similar point. Players are paid little during a three- or four-year minor-league career, then have to put in six years at the major-league level before becoming eligible for free agency. By that point, they’re being pinched by a growing industry perception of a 30-something player being “a declining player,” Turner said.“If front offices are changing and evolving in the way they do business, then maybe the system needs to change and evolve too,” he said.SEAGER STATUSDodgers shortstop Corey Seager said he is “excited” by the progress he has made in his rehab from hip and elbow surgeries.“It’s just so much better being out here as part of a group,” Seager said. “Instead of grinding away by yourself.”Related Articles
An analysis of the Earth’s nighttime illumination shows that the United States and India are brightening while Moldova and Ukraine are growing darker. The illumination is reflected in computer enhanced charts from the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) in Boulder, Colo, of a composite of satellite images snapped in 2003. Related Items