A hurricane is essentially a heat engine, a rotating storm fueled by moisture from the warm ocean. The prevailing theory as to how hurricanes weaken after landfall is that once they lose that source of fuel, friction with land causes their spinning to slow down.Dr. Chakraborty likened it to a swirling cup of tea. “Over the ocean, because the moisture supply is there for the heat engine, you’re constantly stirring the tea,” he said. But when it hits land the supply is cut off, the stirring stops and friction causes the swirling to slow“Importantly, thermodynamics plays no role” in this process of slowing, according to the theory, he said.What he and his co-author suggest, however, is that the moisture remaining in the storm plays a thermodynamic role, affecting the rate at which the storm weakens. And in a warming climate, with warmer sea-surface temperatures, there is more moisture remaining in the storm.“Once we understand that moisture plays a key role, the connection with climate becomes evident,” Dr. Chakraborty said.Their hurricane simulations allowed them to test the idea that moisture plays a role by creating “dry” hurricanes, without moisture, that decayed much more rapidly than normal ones. The models also allowed them to determine that factors like topography and the weather inland played less of a role in storms’ weakening.Dr. Camargo said one potential weakness of the study was that the models used were, by necessity, rather simple. Modeling hurricanes after landfall is difficult, she said. “It’s a hard problem. The models have to capture a lot of things that are going on — the interaction with topography, for instance.”“I don’t know if what they did in the model is the best way to represent landfalling hurricanes,” Dr. Camargo added. “But at least in this model, it seems to agree with their idea.”Dr. Chakraborty said he was not surprised there was some skepticism about the findings. “Overall, our study challenges widely-held ideas about hurricane decay,” he said. “I hope this will spur more research and shed new light on this important area that is long thought to be well understood.” In studying the effects of climate change on hurricanes, scientists have focused on what occurs over water, when storms are forming and strengthening, picking up heat and moisture as they churn over the ocean.But a new study looks at what happens after hurricanes make landfall and work their way inland. The research suggests that climate change is affecting storms during this phase of their life as well, causing them to weaken more slowly and remain destructive for longer.- Advertisement – The findings could have implications for how emergency-management agencies prepare for storms post-landfall.In the study, published Wednesday in the journal Nature, Lin Li and Pinaki Chakraborty of the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University in Japan analyzed data from North Atlantic hurricanes that made landfall from 1967 to 2018, looking at the decay in intensity, or wind speed, of the storms in the first day after hitting land. One prominent hurricane researcher, Kerry Emanuel of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said he was skeptical of the findings. In an email message, Dr. Emanuel said he disagreed with the researchers’ theoretical argument and that the data and simulations, “while suggestive, do not definitively prove the case that decay is slower in warmer climates independent of other factors, such as storm size.” – Advertisement – But other researchers said the study was compelling and opened up a new field of hurricane research, on their behavior over land. Even weakened, winds from these storms can topple trees and power lines, damage homes and cause other destruction well inland. Dan Chavas, an atmospheric scientist at Purdue University who wrote an article accompanying the paper in Nature, said the work was “definitive in identifying a topic almost no one has thought about and could be very important.”Suzana Camargo, a hurricane researcher at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, a part of Columbia University, said that she and colleagues published a study last year that showed that stronger hurricanes produced more precipitation after making landfall.In the new study, she said, “they are saying that moisture stays in the storm for a while, and that completely makes sense with what we saw in our study.” They found that while 50 years ago a typical storm would have lost more than three-quarters of its intensity in the first 24 hours, when it might travel several hundred miles inland, now it would only lose about half.- Advertisement – – Advertisement – “The decay has slowed down tremendously over the last 50 years,” Dr. Chakraborty said in an interview. “There may very well be a climatic link.”Comparing the data on decay with changes in sea-surface temperatures, and then using simulations of hurricanes moving onto land, the scientists discovered what they say is the link: Rising ocean temperatures linked to global warming are causing the storms to weaken more slowly, even after storms move away from the source of the moisture.The scientists cautioned that there were caveats to their research, among them that they used a relatively small data set — only 71 hurricanes made landfall over five decades.
Share Share Sharing is caring! LifestyleRelationships Are Couples Getting Married too Young?. by: – May 7, 2011 677 Views no discussions Scarily-high divorce statistics show that nearly 50% of marriages end in divorce, and that 60% of all couples who marry between the age of 20 and 25 divorce. This leads to a few questions: Are we not taking marriage seriously enough? Are couples getting married too young?As we grow up, most of us are taught that marriage is a stable union between two people who are deeply committed to each other and to building a life together. It is a wonderful journey for two people to embark on – and this is true. Marriages should be full of love, companionship, trust, support and laughter.However, when we are young and developing is also the time to be free to develop fully as individuals – to pursue a career choice, to travel, to be independent. These are things which you can do in a couple, obviously, but will definitely be limited once you start a family. When we are younger and in our 20s, sometimes we don’t have a strong sense of who we are as an individual. This makes it easy sometimes to lose ourselves in our relationship. Most couples who marry young face divorce because of emotional immaturity and limited life experiences.A couple who started as 16-year-old high school sweethearts may feel that marriage is the next step in their early 20s. While this can work, it is also important to recognize that some issues may arise. For example, if you have not dated around because you have always been with the same person since high school, you may find yourself wanting to meet new people or to learn what it’s like to be with other people as you grow older. It is important to date around — that way, you can really appreciate your partner when you learn that the grass is not greener on the other side.It is also important to have financial security. Weddings can be expensive, and things like buying a home and starting a family require significant amounts of money. When we are younger, we can get around without spending much money, but once you are committed to being with someone else, it is important you are both financially stable. There is nothing worse than fighting about money, or living from paycheck to paycheck. It can build resentment or lead to stress and can cause a strain on relationships. As we get older, we learn how to budget and how to finance the personal lifestyle we’ve grown accustomed to, making it easier to manage money. As crass as it may sound, financial dependence can be a huge relationship strain on couples.If you look at what a commitment marriage is, you should never want to rush into it. Divorce is hard. All breakups are, but divorce can become a lot messier, especially if there are children involved. There should never be a rush to get married. Yes, it is a wonderful step, a declaration of love to and for each other, but it does not protect you from infidelity, it does not provide more security, and it cannot help salvage a relationship. It is a serious commitment and should not be entered into lightly. When we are still young and evolving so much as individuals, it may be better to save the next step of marriage until we are older, more mature and stable both financially and emotionally, both individually and as a couple.By Davina Dummer, BounceBack Editorial Staff Share Tweet
Hearts of Oak will depart Accra for Libya with a 28-man delegation which includes players, technical team and key management members for pre-season games.The Phobians have lined up two friendly games against Ittihad Tripoli and Tehaa sports on December 14 and 16 respectively.“We are going there with a 28-man delegation and that includes players, technical team and key management members.” Hearts of Oak spokesman Opare Addo said.“All documentations are ready and the Libyan club have sent us correspondence for ticketing and other travel arrangements to be facilitated.”Meanwhile, head coach Kenichi Yatsuhashi believes these games will offer him an opportunity to smoothen the rough edges in his team.“I am taking it day by day; everything including fitness, team play, to their skill to understanding each other, all aspects of football has to be improved,” he told Asempa Sports “To look at our fast game, I think you can compare our fast game to the last game of last season and you can tell us what we have done in the pre-season period.”These two games will be the third and fourth under Kenichi after drawing 1-1 with lowly ranked Sunshine Stars and losing 4-1 to Premier League side WAFA.–Follow Joy Sports on Twitter: @Joy997FM. Our hashtag is #JoySports