Today, I’m answering another reader question. Beth asks:Can you provide a basic (simple) framework to create a fundraising plan (or resources to do so) – for a brand new nonprofit and their completely new to fundraising staff? Thanks!Here’s what Network for Good recommends in our Fundraising Campaign in a Box. (You can get the whole free kit here. It has worksheets, templates, etc.)1. Figure out what you’re trying to accomplish.Any campaign worth its salt is about getting results. What results are you and your organization looking to achieve? When you’re planning your outreach, remember these three tips:There is no such thing as “the general public”…Instead, you need to segment your communications to be effective and targeted.Some audiences are more important than others. Think about your goals and who holds the key to your success. Lack of participation from primary groups can cause your campaign to falter or fail.2. Determine how you’re going to accomplish your goals (tell a great story).So – you have groups of people and actions you want them to take. How are you going to tell your story in a compelling manner? What themes, messages and ideas are you going to take from your arsenal of content to encourage action? Need inspiration? Read How to Tap into the Heart and Soul of Your Organization When You Write.3. Determine which communications channels you’ll use.There are a variety of online and offline channels that you can use to send the right message to the right audiences. Examples of online channels include your website, search marketing, email marketing and social networking. Offline channels include things like direct mail, paid advertising and public relations.4. Decide which resources you need to get the job done.Ensure that you have all of your tools and resources in place to make your job-and the jobs of your audience(s)-as easy, effective and cost-effective as possible.Is email an important part of your plan, but you’re still communicating with supporters via Outlook? (eek! Stop what you’re doing and read 5 Steps to Choosing the Ideal Email Service Provider)Is your website well-branded and easy to use, with a clear way to donate?Is your website set up to take safe, secure online donations? (I of course recommend Network for Good!)5. Determine who will execute your campaign steps.Accountability will make or break the success of a campaign. As much fun as it is to pass the buck, now is as good a time as any to decide which members of your organization, board or volunteers are responsible for the different portions of your campaign.6. Lay out how you will measure your success.In the case of holiday fundraising, this could be as simple as a dollar sign with a number after it. But take a moment to consider what other goals you may have. Wow your organization’s Board and leadership with conversation rates, list-building, website traffic and any other number results into which they can sink their teeth.7. Set your timeline and benchmarks.One of the defining features of a campaign is that it has a defined start and end. Now that you have planned out the ‘who, what and why’ questions of your campaigns, it’s time to determine the when. Continue to build your campaign plan by setting ownership and deadlines for the associated activities. Begin with the end in mind – if your campaign will run from 11/1 – 12/31, work backwards to be sure that all activities will happen in a smooth manner. Don’t use magical thinking to set deadlines! Run activities in parallel if you are worried about compression time-wise.Good luck!
How do you make sure you raise more through your fundraising event?This might sound painfully obvious, but it’s often overlooked by many nonprofits: Make sure to give attendees the option to give more at your event. Be appreciative of those who have purchased tickets and are attending your event, but recognize that a portion of your attendees will be ready and willing to do even more. Here are strategies for opening the door to more donations at your next event:Auctions & Raffles: Auctions, games, and raffles are popular ways to raise even more money. The best raffles and auctions feature items that tie back to your cause or reflect your community’s unique interests.Mobile Donations: Channel supporters’ good feelings into more gifts by reminding them that they can give on the spot via their mobile device. (Don’t have a mobile-friendly donation and events solution? Check out Network for Good’s affordable fundraising software.)Recurring Donations and Memberships: Create a “Donation Station” or membership kiosk that will help your loyal supporters set up a recurring gift or become members of your organization. Be sure to staff your booth to make this process personal, easy, and fun.Additional Gifts: Make it easy for attendees to not only register for tickets online, but to also give an additional donation.Illustrate Your Impact: When your donors feel like there is a real, tangible benefit as a result of their donation, they’ll be more likely to give again.Need an easy-to-use Fundraising Event and Ticketing tool? Schedule a personalized demo to learn how we can help you have your most successful event ever.
Kari Saratovsky: I’ve spent the better part of the past five years trying to understand the complexity of what is now the largest and most diverse generation in our history. When I finished reading the Playbook, I was thirsting to know even more, so I asked to interview superstar author Kari Saratovsky. With refreshing practicality, Nancy Schwartz rolls up her sleeves to help nonprofits develop and implement strategies to build strong relationships that inspire key supporters to action. She shares her deep nonprofit marketing insights—and passion—through consulting, speaking, and her popular blog and e-news at GettingAttention.org. Millennials probably aren’t your most generous donor cohort today, but they are the leading indicator of online trends and where your organization needs to shift its communications and fundraising focus. You talk about embracing the “Millennial mindset.” What does that mean, and how do you make it happen? However, Millennials will be the recipients of a $41 trillion transfer of wealth. This presents nonprofits with a huge opportunity to build relationships today that will deepen over time. When NFG recognized that its community was struggling to engage this younger donor cohort, I jumped on the chance to craft this guide. But they’re also impulsive and want to donate easily, whether that’s online, via their phones, or whatever other device is on hand. Plus, because they have limited dollars today, they want to be able to pool their resources with friends and peers for a greater impact. All of this is forcing organizations to get smarter with their outreach to this generation. Yes and no. Millennials want what any smart donor wants. They want to know the impact of the dollars they invest in an organization. They want to be thanked and recognized for their efforts. They want to feel like they’re making a tangible difference. Embracing the Millennial mindset is an opportunity for organizations to integrate qualities that are important to Millennials—such as openness, transparency, and appreciation of diversity and collaboration—into their culture asap. But remember: The only way to get there is to share this recommendation, using data and anecdotes, to get buy-in from your peers and leadership. Everyone has to be invested in making this shift, and it won’t happen overnight. So get started now! Do Millennials really have different expectations when it comes to their philanthropic giving? Nancy Schwartz: Kari, why did you dig into this topic? Read Part Two »Wow! I’m amazed and delighted by the just-released Millennial Donor Playbook (download your free copy here). We finally have a much-needed guide to engaging these prospects who are influencing change across organizations and generations. This prerequisite to current and future fundraising success applies to donors across all generations—and it’s prompting a shift in organizational culture, from large, national-affiliate organizations to small, community-based ones. Peer-to-peer is big in online giving. What’s the secret of five-star peer-to-peer fundraising campaigns? Organizations get the greatest response from peer-to-peer campaigns when they equip their existing donor base with the tools to make it easy for them to engage their friends, colleagues, and families. All of a sudden, you can connect with people who may be one or two times removed from your immediate network, and the possibilities to build upon that are endless. That’s exponential reach, at least potentially. We provide specific how-tos in the Playbook. If you’re still trying to decide if peer-to-peer or social fundraising is right for you, review this list of questions you should be asking. Download your copy of The Millennial Donor Playbook today. But to open that door, you have to be willing to relinquish some control and trust that your people know what their families and friends care about and want. And you have to remain confident that the most passionate members of your network will be the strongest champions of your cause. We’ll be back with Part 2 soon. Thanks so much, Kari! What I’ve learned is that while organizations are on an endless search for the silver bullet to engaging Millennials, there is no magic wand to engage the broad range of Millennial perspectives and backgrounds. Alas!
Network for Good works with so many amazing nonprofits and we want to introduce you to them and the great work they are doing! Because May is Sexual Assault Awareness Month, I want you to meet one of my favorite customers who is doing amazing work helping child sexual abuse survivors heal their whole being.Meet Firecracker Foundation The Firecracker Foundation challenges their supporters to build a blaze, to be a part of the network that keeps and builds the lively sparks in child survivors. From the adult survivors who serve as mentors to the therapists and yoga instructors who offer their time and expertise, Firecracker truly has built a community of healing around the children survivors they serve. That community isn’t just by happenstance; they’ve consciously made recurring giving the heart of their fundraising strategy as a way to ensure the continued success of their communal work. On a larger scale, however, The Firecracker Foundation is about community. Tashmica Torok, the founder of Firecracker, has built her organization around the historical idea of community members being charged with keeping the communal fire burning. From their mission to their fundraising strategy, this ethos of the many coming together for a common goal is extremely evident. We are honored to serve the Firecracker Foundation as their online donation software provider! You guys are amazing! Using Facebook to rally attendance at events is a great way to meet supporters where they already are: Facebook. During their year-end campaign Firecracker Foundation’s Instagram feed kept supporters updated on how close they were to hitting their goal. http://t.co/FKbNzanWBF #ItsTimeToAct #SAAM2015 #LetsEndViolence #SexualAssaultAwarenessMonth— The Firecracker Fdn (@FirecrackerFdn) April 7, 2015 Due to the sensitive nature of their work, it might not be safe to display the photos of those they serve. However, they embrace that challenge and still share images that show the impact of donors’ gifts, without showing clients’ faces. Social media gives organizations the unique opportunity of giving supporters an inside peek into all the work you do. In addition to their work with sexual abuse survivors, Firecracker Foundation also trains advocates. Their Model Stellar Social Media Don’t worry about constantly generating original content, share content that will resonate with your supporters and promote your mission. On a day-to-day basis, The Firecracker Foundation works with survivors of childhood sexual trauma through long-term strategies of therapy, arts enrichment, and yoga practice. Their work is focused on healing the whole individual. Firecracker Foundation takes their emphasis of community involvement and engagement beyond the clients they serve and the advocates they train. They also take that energy to social media. Check out these posts from their social channels: As one of our “Spotlight” nonprofits, we encourage you to take a look at the great work they’re doing and spread the love by following them on Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook.
When it comes to updating nonprofit branding, there can seem be more questions than answers. Questions like:Will rebranding increase donations?Will rebranding make it easier for us to convey our organization’s impact and value?Is now the time for us to rebrand?We finally get answers to these million-dollar questions in The Rebrand Effect: How Significant Communications Changes Help Nonprofits Raise More Money (free download here).This eBook from nonprofit communications agency Big Duck is based on the results of a national survey of 350 nonprofit organizations that rebranded within the last 10 years.For the study, Big Duck defines a comprehensive rebrand as developing or changing four or more of these elements:Brand strategyOrganizational nameTaglineLogoKey messagesElevator pitch.A limited rebrand includes three or fewer of these elements.Here are the highlights of this study and what they may mean for your organization:The Good News: Nonprofits that Rebrand Raise More Money.According to the study, most organizations invest in rebranding in hopes of connecting more quickly and firmly with individual donors and prospects. Statistics show those hopes are the reality for many organizations.Fifty percent of organizations surveyed reported revenue growth, with the greatest increase seen in individual giving. This success rate is particularly striking since many participating organizations were in the process or rebranding, or had done so within the last one to two years, so felt it was too early to assess the impact of those changes.Organizations that Comprehensively Rebrand See Greatest ROI.More than half (56%) of the organizations that completed a comprehensive rebrand saw revenue increase, compared to 41% of organizations that implemented limited rebranding.And the impact of comprehensive rebranding exceed revenue gains. The survey found that organizations making more comprehensive changes are likely to see these additional wins:Greater audience participation, from program registration to activism.Improved staff ability and confidence to communicate effectively about the organization, its impact, and value.More media coverage.Several Factors Influence Rebrand Results.The data shows that results stem from more than the rebrand itself. Organizations that rebrand with any or all of these elements already in place are far more likely to get to goal:New, clear organizational focus or strategic plan (within last 12 months)New leadershipStaff and leadership committed to advancing branding and communications changes.In other words, these factors lead to relevant and robust rebrands. If your organization has any or all of these success factors in place, rebranding may well deliver significant value! Dig into the full report from Big Duck to learn more about if, and how, rebranding done right is likely to move the needle for your fundraising efforts.Bonus: Nonprofit branding is important so don’t ignore it. Are you reflecting your brand in all aspects of your giving experience: Events, donation pages, emails, and peer-to-peer campaigns? If not, we can help. Talk to a rep to learn more.
ShareEmailPrint To learn more, read: Posted on October 20, 2015October 13, 2016By: Katie Millar, Senior Project Manager, Women and Health Initiative, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public HealthClick to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Experts from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Ministries of Health of Sri Lanka, Rwanda and Ethiopia gathered yesterday to discuss an often forgotten part of the maternal and neonatal health continuum: postnatal care (PNC), which is critical to both the health of the mother and newborn. Even when progress is seen in facility care and skilled birth attendance (SBA), PNC lacks behind and has the lowest coverage of any care type along the continuum. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, only 35% of mothers receive PNC, while 93% have SBA, said Etienne Langlois of WHO.With the majority of deaths for women and newborns happening after birth and within the first month of life, standards for PNC reflected in policy and practice are crucial. The new postnatal guidelines released by the WHO this month will hopefully serve as a catalyst to amplify efforts for PNC.Bernadette Daelmans, coordinator of policy, planning and programmes in the department of maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health at WHO, presented the process adopted to create the evidence-based guidelines and what changes have been made since the last iteration. So what is new about the guidelines? It is now recommended that women should receive facility care for at least 24 hours after birth, an increase from the previously recommended 12 hours. In addition, there should be at least three PNC visits. The timing of these visits, on day 3, between 7-14 days and six weeks after birth, are selected for the unique impact they can have on mortality and morbidity.Another large change to the PNC guidelines is in regards to neonatal skin care. For years, studies have shown that chlorhexidine used for umbilical cord care after birth can decrease neonatal infections and death. Now, WHO has a guideline and recommendation for this practice. Women who give birth at home in areas with a neonatal mortality rate greater than or equal to 30 neonatal deaths per 1000 live births, should apply chlorhexidine daily to the umbilical cord for the first week of life. For newborns born in health facilities or where the NMR is low, clean, dry cord care is recommended, with chlorhexidine used where traditional, yet harmful substances are used on the cord.But what does this mean for countries? How can they implement these changes in a context specific way? WHO recommends creating a continuum between facility and home, ensuring adequate infrastructure so providers can provide care respectfully and implementing the baby-friendly hospital initiative. Though this sounds straightforward enough, country experts reveal the challenges around implementing PNC and these new guidelines.Currently, PNC has some of the greatest inequities, with coverage currently favoring urban settings. What does this mean and how can we address these inequities? Community-level interventions are needed but “we also need health systems that deliver quality PNC services. We need to strengthen delivery at health system level,” said Langlois.Kapila Jayaratne, national programme manager in the family health bureau at the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka, noted that sufficient human resources are often a problem in reaching women and newborns with PNC. Catherine Mugeni of the Ministry of Health in Rwanda echoed the issue of human resources. Turnover of staff is high and even where numbers of health workers are sufficient, keeping them properly trained and updated is difficult.Part of this problem may be that often community health workers who serve on a volunteer basis don’t have the resource or renumeration they need in order to provide sufficient and quality care. Lisanu Taddesse of the Ministry of Health in Ethiopia, noted a solution to this problem in the structure of Ethiopia’s Health Extension Worker (HEW) Program where HEWs are government employees. This improves regulation and supervision, he argued.Taddesse summarized the successes they’ve had in increasing both facility birth and PNC in Ethiopia, but also the challenges. Where neonatal and infant mortality are high, women and families don’t consider the newborn a full human being for the first days or months of life. This coupled with cultural practices of maternal isolation after birth are barriers to seeking postnatal care where home visits are not possible.As Jayaratne, Taddesse and Mugeni summarized their current approach and considerations for context specific implementation, Langlois issued a reminder. “When the PNC guidelines are implemented at the country level, adaptability can’t inhibit fidelity,” he said. Robert McPherson an independent consultant at Save the Children, agreed. Guidelines are connected to outcomes by evidence and when that evidence isn’t applied, the results we’re aiming for won’t be realized.As we move forward in implementing the new PNC guidelines, we must do so carefully, to both maintain fidelity but also ensure the care is meeting the needs of the women and children it is meant to serve. Certain aspects of the guidelines, like facility watch for 24 hours after birth, may inhibit facility delivery for women who, due to cultural or livelihood reasons, may not be able to stay that long. In addition, women and their families need supportive education as the world adopts new cord care standards that replace valued traditional practices.Photo: ©2014 Katie Millar/MHTFShare this:
ShareEmailPrint To learn more, read: Posted on January 19, 2016June 23, 2017By: Katie Millar, Jacquelyn Caglia and Ana Langer, MHTFClick to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)The deadline for submissions has been extended to May 1st!Progress for AllAs a maternal health community, we have much to celebrate as we reflect on progress made with global attention to the Millennium Development Goals. Yet, most countries did not meet MDG 5[i],[ii], to reduce maternal mortality by three quarters by 2015, and, despite progress, inequality prevails both among and within countries[iii],[iv]. The Sustainable Development Goals emphasize the urgent need for increased equality everywhere. [v]In order to address the need to reduce inequalities and showcase necessary measurement improvements to uncover them, the Maternal Health Task Force (MHTF) is partnering for the fourth time with PLOS for a new MHTF-PLOS collection, “Neglected Populations: Decreasing inequalities and improving measurement in maternal health.” The MHTF’s overarching goal for our collections is to promote and facilitate the wide dissemination of new evidence on this critical topic, highlighting in particular the work of maternal health researchers in low-resource settings.The epicenter of inequality is often found in neglected populations. Groups of women who are marginalized based on their race[vi], ethnicity, language[vii], socioeconomic status[viii], citizenship (or statelessness)[ix], age[iv], disability[iv], or geography[viii] experience some of the worst health outcomes. As the tide of global health priorities turns to universal health coverage[x],[xi],[xii], we must ensure that those worst off are provided access to the full spectrum of quality reproductive, maternal and newborn health care.In 2014, more people were displaced, internally and externally, than any other year in recorded history. The staggering rate of 59.5 million is 59% higher than it was a decade ago.[xiii] The resulting statelessness of displacement often further complicates a woman’s ability to access the care she needs.[ix] In particular, women in areas of conflict experience high rates of trauma, especially domestic and sexual violence[xiv],[xv], and have poor access to reproductive and maternal health care [xvi],[iv].Now, more women live in urban settings than rural, where they face a new set of barriers to health. Urban residence can bring challenges of overcrowding, insecurity, decreased social cohesion, and unhealthy lifestyles.[iv] Other groups, including adolescents[iv], women with HIV, and sexual minorities[iv], have poor access to maternal healthcare due to stigma or prejudice.Call for PapersThrough this latest collection of papers, we seek to draw attention to issues of inequality within maternal health, with a particular focus on new and innovative measurement tools and approaches to track disparities and guide efforts to reduce them.Papers submitted to this collection must present and discuss primary quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods research in maternal health with the following focus:Analysis of strategies to assess and address the needs of neglected populationsCommunity-based research conducted in neglected populationsImplementation and evaluation of programs where the neglected population they were designed to serve was included throughout the planning, implementation, and evaluation processUse of disaggregated data to address inequalities in maternal healthPresentation and evaluation of new measurement tools or novel application of existing ones to reduce disparities in maternal healthResearch articles should adhere to PLOS ONE’s publication criteria and submissions that present new methods or tools as the primary focus of the manuscript should meet additional requirements regarding utility, validation and availability. Authors should refer to the PLOS ONE Submission Guidelines for specific submission requirements.Publication FundingThis special collection has been made possible by generous support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through Grant #OPP1125608 to the Maternal Health Task Force at the Women and Health Initiative at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health. The Maternal Health Task Force is pleased to cover the publication costs for a limited number of papers from authors with a financial need, for example early career researchers and/or authors from low-and middle-income countries. Authors requiring such assistance should include a statement to that effect in their initial correspondence to email@example.com (see below).Submitting to the CollectionAuthors should submit a preliminary abstract or full paper (if possible) for scope consideration to firstname.lastname@example.org. Potential suitability for the collection will be determined within two weeks. A draft of the full manuscript may be requested if suitability cannot be determined based on the abstract alone. Preliminary decision on scope based on draft abstracts or manuscripts does not imply acceptance by the journal upon submission. Editors have no knowledge of an author’s financial status and all decisions will be based solely on editorial criteria. If your submission has been approved for conditional inclusion in the collection after scope review, a full draft of the paper should be submitted to PLOS ONE using the collection submission guidelines.Submitted manuscripts will then undergo evaluation according to the journal’s policies and no articles can be guaranteed acceptance. PLOS ONE editors will retain all control over editorial decisions.Articles will stand the best chance of inclusion in the collection if they are submitted by May 1, 2016.[i] Countdown Final Report[ii] The Millennium Development Goals Report[iii] Addressing inequity to achieve the maternal and child health millennium development goals: looking beyond averages[iv] Women and Health: the key for sustainable development[v] Ending preventable maternal and newborn mortality and stillbirths[vi] Pregnancy-related mortality in the United States, 2006-2010.[vii] Maternal language and adverse birth outcomes in a statewide analysis.[viii] Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?[ix] Health insurance for people with citizenship problems in Thailand: a case study of policy implementation.[x] The Politics of Universal Health Coverage in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Framework for Evaluation and Action.[xi] Towards universal health coverage for reproductive health services in Ethiopia: two policy recommendations.[xii] Universal health coverage in ‘One ASEAN’: are migrants included?[xiii] World at War: UNHCR Global Trends 2014[xiv] What evidence exists for initiatives to reduce risk and incidence of sexual violence in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises? A systematic review.[xv] Symptoms associated with pregnancy complications along the Thai-Burma border: the role of conflict violenceand intimate partner violence.[xvi] Maternal health care amid political unrest: the effect of armed conflict on antenatal care utilization in Nepal.Share this:
Posted on March 10, 2016October 12, 2016By: Kayla McGowan, Project Coordinator, Women and Health Initiative, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public HealthClick to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)While improving access to maternal and newborn health services is fundamental in reducing the global maternal and neonatal mortality ratios and meeting the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, ensuring quality care is an equally important aim.The Maternal Health Innovations Fund, a project of the MHTF, recently supported several projects in collaboration with The International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) and Pakistan’s Agha Khan University (AKU) that examined ways to improve quality of care in low- and middle-income countries.Icddr,b and AKU have published 10 knowledge briefs summarizing findings from their recent maternal health research that took place in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Southern Kyrgystan, and Pakistan. The knowledge briefs identify urgent needs in maternal health, highlight improvements in the field, and offer recommendations for addressing gaps in access, quality, and measurement of care based on the implementation research conducted under this project.Three of the projects investigated solutions related to improving the quality of maternal and newborn care:Knowledge Exchange for Health Service Providers: This study in Bangladesh convened a health services provider club (HSP) consisting of maternal and neonatal health service providers in rural Shahjadpur. The HSP gathered for monthly refresher training sessions and developed an action plan to improve the quality of maternal newborn health services in the sub-district. Pre- and post-intervention research showed significant improvements in antenatal care and postnatal care services, as well as increased essential newborn care practices. Childbirth Checklist: Researchers in Bangladesh found that the World Health Organization’s Safe Childbirth Checklist is a low-cost, effective tool that can improve quality of maternal and newborn health services and thereby increase uptake of facility-based services.Learn more about the Maternal Health Innovations Fund and read the rest of the knowledge briefs >> Share this: Pregnancy, Delivery and Postpartum Care: This study utilized 26 ‘signal functions’ to assess the quality of obstetric and newborn care at six health facilities in Bangladesh. ShareEmailPrint To learn more, read:
ShareEmailPrint To learn more, read: Posted on May 4, 2016October 12, 2016By: Jacquelyn Caglia, Associate Director, Women and Health Initiative, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public HealthClick to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)As we celebrate International Day of the Midwife on May 5th, now is an especially important time to acknowledge midwives for their hard work in ensuring the health of women and newborns before, during, and after childbirth. The theme for 2016 is “Women and Newborns: The Heart of Midwifery.” We’ve rounded up some of our favorite resources about midwifery around the world:The State of the World’s Midwifery 2014: A Universal Pathway. A Woman’s Right to HealthThis report by UNFPA, the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM), WHO, and others is the most up-to-date resource we have on the world’s midwifery workforce. The report, available in English, French, and Spanish, provides key resources about the critical role midwives play in the health system in more than 70 low- and middle-income countries as well as a fact sheet with key messages and a compelling infographic highlighting quality and impact.The Lancet Series on MidwiferyAlso in 2014, The Lancet published a groundbreaking series of papers on the vital contributions midwives make to ensuring high-quality health services for women and newborns. The executive summary of the series provides an overview of the four main papers, key messages, and the evidence-informed framework for maternal and newborn care.Call the Midwife: A Conversation About the Rising Global Midwifery MovementLast March, we hosted a day-long symposium about midwifery with our partners from the Wilson Center and UNFPA. The expert speakers represented a diversity of country perspectives and shared evidence needed to build the case for scaling up midwifery. A summary of the rich discussion was published on our blog; video recordings and archived presentations from the expert speakers are available through the Wilson Center.Bill of Rights for Women and MidwivesThis resource from the ICM lays out the basic human rights for women and midwives across the globe, providing a helpful reminder of the core ethics and competencies we should all be striving to uphold in support of women, newborns, and midwives.Advocacy Approaches to Promote Midwives and the Profession of MidwiferyThis policy brief from the White Ribbon Alliance sheds light on how to influence policymakers, involve the media, engage youth, and mobilize communities in support of midwifery while also strengthening the capacity of midwives as advocates.What Prevents Quality Midwifery Care?This article, published this week in PLOS ONE, systematically maps out the social, economic and professional barriers to quality of care in low- and middle-income countries from the provider perspective. The authors’ findings underscore the need for a gender-responsive, equity-driven and human rights-based approach to strengthening midwifery, as called for in the Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescent’s Health. In order to meet the health-related Sustainable Development Goals, we must improve the experience of those in the midwifery profession as well as the quality of health services they provide.Do you have any other resources on midwifery that you’d like to recommend? If so, email us at email@example.com. We’d love to hear from you!Please join us in celebrating the International Day of the Midwife! More information about the campaign may be found on the International Confederation of Midwives‘ website. Follow along on Twitter by using #IDM2016.Read an interview with Rima Jolivet, our Maternal Health Technical Director, on the current and future landscape of midwifery!Share this:
Share this: Community members share their perceptions of pregnancy and antenatal care and ideas for making visual aids more culturally relevant.While all of these influencers care about the baby’s health, they generally believe the woman’s health is secondary. Our research highlighted the critical need to help community members understand the link between antenatal care and a woman’s and baby’s health.Based on our discussions with community members, we realized the need to emphasize the link between a woman’s health and that of her baby.Co-creating pregnancy clubs with women and providersWhen designing the group antenatal care model in Kenya, as in Uganda, we wanted to ensure that it improved the pregnancy and birth experience of the women participants, while enhancing — not burdening — the workflow of the health care providers. As a result of these discussions, and building on our experience forming groups in Uganda, we engaged women and providers in the creation of the Lea Mimba pregnancy club in Kenya.A calendar contains a health record and useful visuals that help women to track their own and their baby’s health.We adapted the Uganda group antenatal care curriculum to comply with national standards and guidelines for maternal and newborn health while meeting the current World Health Organization recommendations of eight antenatal care contacts. We also incorporated elements of self-care where women participate in taking their weight and recording their blood pressure, and facilitators encouraged women to build relationships and meet with club members outside of group sessions. To support the group model, we collaborated with local midwives and health care staff to develop a package of implementation materials that can be adapted for use in other settings, including a training curriculum; health care provider job aids; visual and tactile materials; supervision and monitoring tools and community engagement tools.Posters, flyers, and aprons were designed to spark public interest in the Lea Mimba Club and its functions.We observed and requested feedback from women and providers who participated in mock pregnancy club sessions. Participants commented on their experiences engaging in or leading the sessions, their understanding of the health topics and the usefulness and relevance of the implementation materials. During these sessions, we noticed that some women were initially quiet, but they became more involved when health care providers told stories or invited participants to sing songs that convey health messages. Women passed around a ball to indicate their turn to speak, and at times, even asked for the ball.After these mock sessions, participants continued to talk about what they learned as they waited for their individual appointments with midwives. They agreed that it would be easiest to attend sessions on market days, and midwives recommended that sessions take place in the afternoon when clinics are less crowded. Midwives noted that the group format also saved them time, as they could share more advice and information than was possible during one-on-one antenatal care appointments. Based on these observations and comments from the mock session participants, we revised the session structure and accompanying materials.Health care providers review the Lea Mimba message scrolls and share their thoughts on the usefulness of these tools.Pregnancy clubs in sessionWe have started pregnancy clubs in six facilities in Kakamega County. Groups comprise eight to 10 women of similar gestational ages, and we emphasize that each club session is a confidential and safe space for women to talk about their pregnancies, even if they are not yet ready to declare their pregnancy to the community.As health facilities host pregnancy clubs, we will continue to engage community members in discussions on the importance of antenatal care for all women and babies and encourage them to refer women to their local Lea Mimba pregnancy club.To learn more about our work, visit msh.org and stay up to date with MSH by subscribing to our email series. Listen to the Lea Mimba Pregnancy Club Song: Lea Mimba Club participants sing a song with the message that healthy pregnancies ensure children’s health. Recording by M4ID.Photo credit: M4ID—This post originally appeared on Medium.Read more about group antenatal care>> Posted on August 22, 2018September 21, 2018By: Priyam Sharda, Design Research Lead for M4ID; Shafia Rashid, Senior Technical Advisor, Family Care International (FCI) Program of Management Sciences for HealthClick to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)“For the first three months, the baby is just blood. There’s nothing there to take care of,” said one Kenyan father-to-be in Kakamega County, Western Kenya, where we were meeting with communities and health care providers to learn about their attitudes toward women’s health, pregnancy and care at health facilities.“A baby is a blessing from God,” said the mother-in-law of a pregnant woman during another community discussion. “He alone knows how it grows.”Using insights from these community discussions, Management Sciences for Health (MSH) worked with M4ID, a social impact design company specializing in development and health, to develop a group antenatal care model that meets the needs of young women, adolescent girls (ages 10–24), and health care providers. With support from the UK’s County Innovation Challenge Fund program, the Lea Mimba project (“take care of your pregnancy” in Swahili) used a human-centered design approach to adapt a successful pregnancy club model that MSH and M4ID developed in the Eastern Ugandan communities of Mbale and Bududa in 2016. M4ID uses human-centered design to create solutions that address health and development challenges. Communities actively engage in each step of the process to ensure that solutions are culturally relevant and meet their needs.From traditional to group antenatal careStarting antenatal care early in pregnancy is critical for protecting the health and wellbeing of women and their babies, but in Western Kenya, only about 20% of pregnant women attend their first visit before the fourth month of pregnancy (DHS 2014). Through antenatal care visits, health care providers can detect and treat pregnancy-related complications, such as pre-eclampsia and anemia, before they become life-threatening. Antenatal care visits provide opportunities for health care providers to encourage women to deliver their babies with the help of skilled birth attendants and to promote breastfeeding and other healthy postnatal behaviors.However, traditional one-on-one antenatal care often does not meet women’s and adolescents’ needs for information, support and high-quality clinical care. In Kakamega County, women often must wake up around 7:00 AM to go to the clinic, only to spend most of their time there in the waiting room. During standard antenatal care visits, providers spend between 10 and 15 minutes with each woman, but adolescents and those who are pregnant for the first time may need additional time to learn and understand health information.In recent years, group care models have emerged in low-income countries as a promising approach to provide high-quality antenatal care and promote social support among women during pregnancy. Women go through pregnancy as a cohort, learning through discussion and building bonds with one other and their antenatal care providers.Community perceptions of pregnancy and health careWe asked community members, potential clients and providers how women experience pregnancy and health care in their communities and how providers deliver that care.Several barriers continue to disrupt women’s and adolescents’ access to care, including a lack of high-quality services and information, limited individual and community awareness and support and low male engagement. Several actors —including recently pregnant peers, midwives, community health volunteers, male partners and mothers-in-law— influence a woman’s decision to use antenatal care services. Peers are an important early source of information, as doctors and other authority figures are considered difficult to approach. Mothers-in-law might uphold traditional, cultural beliefs that prevent suggested behavior change, while male partners provide the money or transportation to visit the clinic. We learned that pregnancy is only socially acknowledged toward the end of the second trimester, which deters women from going a health facility early in their pregnancy. ShareEmailPrint To learn more, read:
Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jan 28 2019Researchers at LSTM and Imperial College London have designed drugs which could help combat any potential new flu pandemic, by targeting the receptors of the cells by which the virus gains entry to the human body.In a paper published today(link is external) in the Journal of Immunology the team, led by LSTM’s Professor Richard Pleass, show that by engineering a part of an antibody they can target the viral proteins that allow flu to mutate and become so deadly to humans.Last year marked the centenary of the 1918 influenza pandemic that claimed nearly 100 million lives worldwide, thus becoming the deadliest disease outbreak in recorded history. Global annual influenza outbreaks account for 300,000-650,000 respiratory deaths, mostly in children and the elderly.Related StoriesResearchers map virulence factor of influenza A virus in real-timeNaturally occurring human antibody reveals hidden weakness in influenza virusDrugs designed with advanced computing technologies could help tackle hospital superbugsProfessor Pleass explained: “Influenza vaccines have limited public health impact during pandemics, and current influenza vaccines are less efficacious than vaccines for many other infectious diseases. This is because influenza viruses that circulate in human and animal populations mutate two key viral surface proteins, haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), thus allowing them to escape from protective antibodies produced through natural infection or vaccination”Both HA and NA target a sugar called sialic acid, that is found in abundance on the receptors of cells lining the mammalian respiratory tract, which the virus uses to gain entry into the body. The sialic acid-binding contacts on HA and NA do not mutate readily, otherwise the virus would not be able to infect human cells.The team has engineered antibody Fc fragments with enhanced sialic acid that target these conserved parts of both HA and NA, binding influenza viruses and thus blocking their interactions with human cells.By targeting sialic acid, these engineered biologicals may also be useful in the control of other pathogens, such as group B streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Newcastle Disease Virus.”Better anti-influenza therapeutics are urgently needed.” Continued Professor Pleass: “The transfer of antibodies from people recovering from influenza during the 1918 and 2009 pandemics reduced mortality from influenza by 50% and 26% respectively. However, to be useful, these antibody medicines (also called FLU-IVIG) need to be manufactured in advance of future epidemics, which is obviously problematic as there may be modest or little neutralising activity against newly emerging strains. Therefore, combinations of existing medicines, including FLU-IVIG, with sialic acid blockers could increase their efficacy while future-proofing against the next pandemic.”Professor Sara Marshall, Head of Clinical and Physiological Sciences at the Wellcome Trust, who provided funding for this work, said: “This is a fascinating project, and one which could have really far-reaching impact not only for influenza but as a platform technology to develop new medicines for many other diseases that are currently treated by antibodies.” Source:https://www.lstmed.ac.uk/news-events/news/lstm-and-imperial-college-researchers-design-new-anti-influenza-drugs
Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Mar 27 2019A JRC report brings together data on antibiotic levels in water, showing that small concentrations have found their way into a range of Europe’s waterbodies.Because of the threat of new drug-resistant bugs evolving when these antibiotics come into contact with bacteria present in the water, scientists are gathering evidence to better understand the potential risk.Their data confirms that the levels of antibiotic residues in drinking water are minute and do not represent a risk to human health.However, antibiotic residues can be found at higher levels in waste water, surface waters, agricultural runoff and water used for aquaculture (farms of fish, muscles, seaweed and other marine species).The report is part of JRC efforts dedicated to investigating the implications of antibiotics in water.Scientists aim to determine the minimum concentration of antibiotics that could cause resistance in bacteria, so that future limits can be based on risk assessments that take into account this potential.The report also highlights that the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) (the phenomenon of bacteria resisting the effects of antibiotics) can be constrained if measures are taken to improve the effectiveness of wastewater treatment processes and to control the use of antibiotics in medicine and animal husbandry.Where do antibiotics end up after they’ve done their job?Antibiotics are prescribed for a vast range of bacterial infections in humans and have saved the lives of millions since their discovery.They are also given to animals as part of veterinary treatment, including to control infections in farm livestock.Resistant bacteria regularly evolve in places where antibiotics are commonly used – such as in hospitals where the MRSA ‘superbug’ (resistant to a wide range of antibiotics) is often found.On top of this, antibiotics don’t simply disappear after they’ve done their job of fighting off a bug.They are excreted from the body and so there’s also a risk of similar bugs proliferating in water in treatment plants, in manure and slurry, and in the environment if the concentration of antibiotics is high enough to select for their survival.The prevalence of antibiotic use has led to growing concern over the spread of AMR. In Europe, about 25000 people die of infections from antimicrobial-resistant bacteria every year.It’s also estimated that AMR costs the EU €1.5 bn per year in healthcare costs and productivity losses.Which antibiotics? How are they monitored?Looking at data on 45 antibiotics from 13 countries worldwide, the report’s authors found sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin to be the three most frequently found in the water that flows out of waste water treatment plants.Most of the data came from Europe (79.2%) and, for the antibiotics detected, the concentrations ranged up to 1 µg/L (one millionth of a gram per litre).Related StoriesA bacterium may limit cardiovascular risks of 1 in 2 people, study showsRaw meat can act as reservoir for bacteria associated with hospital infections’Scissors’ component of CRISPR/Cas9 sometimes gets stuckThese medicines are all commonly prescribed for urinary tract infections, while ciprofloxacin is also prescribed for ear and chest infections.Similar concentrations of antibiotics were also reported in surface waters, despite the fact that a reduction in their levels might reasonably have been expected due to the dilution of these substances as effluents run into rivers and lakes.Ciprofloxacin is included alongside amoxicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin and clarithromycin on the Watch List monitoring program under the EU’s Water Framework Directive, which gathers data on substances that may pose a risk at EU level.The analytical methods used have to be able to detect concentrations as low as between 0.019 and 0.089 µg/L, corresponding to concentrations considered not to have direct effects on aquatic organisms such as algae, crustacean and fish.Antibiotics in fish farms?The report notes that therehasso far beenlittle research into the use and effects of antibiotics in the aquaculturesector.In Europe,the use of antibiotics inallanimalfarming activities, including aquaculture,isregulatedby specific legislation.Aquaculture products(as well as any products from the animal farming systems)must not contain pharmacologically active substances abovean established Maximum Residue Limit.Efficient monitoring at EU levelreliesonsurveillance programmesimplementedin the EU Member States, andrelevant dataaremadeavailableto the Commission.Aquaculture is the fastest growing food-producing sector and it is estimated to account for approximately half of the total food supply coming from fish.While it is necessary to prevent bacterial diseases in aquaculture products, the use of vaccines could lessen the need for chemicals and antibiotics in this sector, on condition that vaccines against the most relevant diseases are registered and accessible in all EU member states.BackgroundIn June 2017 the Commission adopted the EU One Health Action Plan against AMR. The key objectives of this new plan include:1. Making the EU a best practice region2. Boosting research, development and innovation3. Shaping the global agendaThe Commission has also adopted the first deliverables of the plan, for example the EU Guidelines on the prudent use of antimicrobials in human health.The guidelines aim to reduce inappropriate use and promote prudent use of antimicrobials in people. They target all actors who are responsible for or play a role in antimicrobial use.The Commission also recently adopted a Strategic Approach to Pharmaceuticals in the Environment – a set of actions addressing the multifaceted challenges that the release of pharmaceuticals poses to the environment. Source:https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/news/antibiotics-water-and-risk-drug-resistant-bacteria
Related StoriesHIV DNA persists in spinal fluid despite treatment, linked to cognitive impairmentTrends in colonoscopy rates not aligned with increase in early onset colorectal cancerNew protein target for deadly ovarian cancerBoom was a co-author of the research published May 20 in Nature Medicine. He was joined in that research by Catherine M. Stein, PhD, of the Department of Population & Quantitative Health Sciences at CWRU School of Medicine. The study also included colleagues from the Uganda-CWRU Research Collaboration clinic, Makerere University in Uganda, the University of Washington, the Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard University.”TB remains the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, and for that reason, these findings about natural defenses by a significant sample – eight percent – of people exposed to TB over more than 10 years is eye-opening,” said Dr. Boom. “This may point us to a signature among people who appear to be naturally immune that could inform vaccine development.” said Dr. Boom.”It also is possible that we need to reconsider the standard TB tests to take into consideration for very low level cases of TB,” he continued. “Clearly, we need to investigate further, as the imperative to find prevention, treatment and cure for TB is pressing.”The study looked at more than 2500 households in Uganda that had individuals with active TB. The researchers found 198 individuals (8.2 percent) who lived in these households for more than 10 years but who never tested positive on the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST, developed in 1886) or the more modern blood test interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). This meant they were either “resistant” to the Mtb infection or not being detected by the two standard tests.”We found through molecular profiling of these individuals that they had been exposed to the bacteria,” said Dr. Boom. “They had likely been infected, but did not exhibit signs or symptoms of Mtb infection and the tests were standard tests were negative. We assume that they mounted a natural immune response, but need to explore further. Source:University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center Further research is needed, but it seems that either the tests are not sufficiently sensitive to detect a low-level case of TB or some people are mounting a natural defense, which is what we believe is happening.”W. Henry Boom, MD, Division Chief of Infectious Disease and HIV Medicine at University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center and CWRU School of Medicine Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Jul 1 2019An international collaboration of infectious disease experts has identified a large group of people who appear to have naturally mounted an immune response to TB, a bacterial infection that is the leading cause of infectious disease death worldwide. Nearly 200 people from 2500 households with active TB were clearly exposed to TB for more than 10 years but the two most reliable tests (TST and IGRA) came back negative on repeated tests.
More talks aimed at resolving the conflict are planned for next week in Washington, while both sides dig in for a fight over their trade imbalance.The tech giant, telecommunications equipment and smartphone maker ZTE, said Wednesday that it’s ceasing “major operations” after the U.S. last month banned it from doing business with American suppliers for seven years as a punishment for illegal exports.Also this week, businesses and officials reported that American products are running into delays in customs clearance because of stepped-up inspections at Chinese ports, suggesting Beijing may be making life tougher for U.S. companies as the dispute drags on.The ZTE business ban stems from a case dating to before the Trump administration, but analysts say the outcome was worse than expected, reflecting a deterioration in trade relations as the two countries vie for technological dominance.”It has become really political now,” said Nikhil Batra, a telecom analyst at IDC. “There would be wider consequences than for just the telecom industry” and for the companies directly involved, he added.The U.S. Commerce Department’s ban cut off ZTE’s access to vital technology and components like semiconductors from U.S. suppliers. A Chinese tech giant has been brought to its knees. Tougher inspections at Chinese ports are holding up cars, apples and lumber imported from the U.S. These are among the early signs that the widening trade dispute between China and the U.S. is exacting a toll on both sides. In this Oct. 8, 2012, file photo, a salesperson stands at counters selling mobile phones produced by ZTE Corp. at an appliance store in Wuhan in central China’s Hubei province. The tech company, ZTE, a Chinese tech giant brought to its knees and delayed shipments of imported U.S. cars, apples, lumber and other agricultural products are the early casualties as China and the U.S. exchange salvos in a trade dispute.(Chinatopix Via AP, File) China’s ZTE stops major operations following US export ban Citation: China tech giant sidelined, US imports held amid trade spat (2018, May 10) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-05-china-tech-giant-sidelined-imports.html © 2018 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. At the same time, U.S. companies exporting to China are seeing their goods held up at China’s ports.Customs officials are doing stricter inspections of the emissions systems in Ford vehicles, ostensibly to comply with new regulations. “That check is apparently quite onerous,” said a person briefed on the matter who spoke on condition of anonymity. “It involves disassembling the vehicles and evaluating each of the components of the emissions system. Once a vehicle is taken apart it can’t be sold so it forces long delays and high storage fees for those vehicles in China.”Last year Ford imported 18,819 autos, including Lincoln-brand vehicles, which arrived at ports in Shanghai and Tianjin. The company said in a statement, “We are closely monitoring our situation at the port.”The U.S. Department of Agriculture said it has received reports of “increased inspections” of many products, without being more specific. The department said in a statement that it is “troubled by reports that China continues to impose unjustified restrictions on U.S. products.”Chinese customs officials said Monday they were tightening up quarantine inspections of apples and lumber imported from the U.S. for signs of rot, pests or diseases.Inspectors in Shanghai, Shenzhen, Qingdao and Xiamen will send samples for lab testing and shipments will not be able to pass through customs while the tests are carried out. Any contaminated shipments will be returned or destroyed, according to the notice posted on China’s General Administration of Customs website.China’s Foreign Ministry said it had no information on the inspections and spokesman Geng Shuang said at a regular briefing that the country “always follows law-based, scientific and fair principles when carrying out quarantine and inspection on imported products.” In this Feb. 26, 2014, file photo, people gather at the ZTE booth at the Mobile World Congress, the world’s largest mobile phone trade show in Barcelona, Spain. Chinese telecommunications company ZTE has halted its main operations after U.S. authorities cut off its access to American suppliers as President Donald Trump steps up pressure over trade and technology issues with Beijing. (AP Photo/Manu Fernandez, File) In this Feb. 26, 2014, file photo, a sign for the ZTE booth is seen at the Mobile World Congress, the world’s largest mobile phone trade show in Barcelona, Spain. Chinese telecommunications company ZTE has halted its main operations after U.S. authorities cut off its access to American suppliers as President Donald Trump steps up pressure over trade and technology issues with Beijing. (AP Photo/Manu Fernandez, File) Explore further ZTE said in a statement that is has enough cash and will seek to fulfill its contracts. It was unclear if the company is planning to shut down: Last week during trade talks in Beijing, Chinese officials appealed to their U.S. counterparts to end the ban.But in another sign of fallout, Australian telecom company Telstra said Thursday it will stop selling the company’s mobile phones and broadband devices because of the U.S. ban.”This was a difficult but necessary step,” Telstra’s head of innovation and strategy, Michele Garra, wrote in a blog post .ZTE sells smartphones globally and supplies networks or equipment to some of the world’s biggest telecoms companies.Losing access to U.S. suppliers is a heavy blow for it and the companies it buys from. The company is the No. 4 smartphone vendor in the U.S., where it also sources more than 40 percent of its components, according to IDC data, creating a multibillion-dollar revenue stream for suppliers like Qualcomm and Intel. Finding alternate suppliers won’t be easy, “therefore, this U.S. ban would be a fatal crisis for any company,” said Yan Sufei, analyst at Zero Power Intelligence Group. “We can’t rule out that there will be layoffs later on.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
© 2019 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. No warrant needed to get cell phone location: US court A federal judge has ruled that suburban Chicago police violated constitutional protections against unreasonable searches by accessing weeks of GPS data indicating a suspect’s car had been outside a jewelry store when it was robbed. Explore further The Chicago Daily Law Bulletin reported Wednesday that U.S. District Judge Gary Feinerman granted a motion by defendant Tobias Diggs to bar the location data compiled by Hinsdale police from his upcoming trial.Prosecutors had cited a Supreme Court ruling that people don’t have a legitimate expectation of privacy when they voluntarily provide data to a third party. But Feinerman said that doesn’t apply to weeks of minute-by-minute location information kept by wireless carriers.Diggs’ lawyer, Douglas E. Whitney, said he was grateful for what he called Feinerman’s “meticulous legal analysis.”Prosecutors declined comment. Citation: Judge: Use of GPS data in robbery case unconstitutional (2019, May 16) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-05-gps-robbery-case-unconstitutional.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.