Every once in awhile, biologists argue over whether evolution is predictable. The latest flap over stick insects sticks up for predictability, but flops.An international group of scientists, publishing in the journal Science, studied stick insects—those long, skinny walking insects that try to blend in with plants by mimicking twigs. In their paper, “Natural selection and the predictability of evolution in Timema stick insects,” they do their best to estimate the trajectory of these bugs. Laura Zahn, however, in a summary of the paper in the same issue of Science, has this to say:Evolution results from expected effects, such as selection driving alleles toward fixation, and stochastic effects, such as unusual environmental variation and genetic drift. To determine the potential to predict evolutionary change, Nosil et al. examined three naturally occurring morphs of stick insects (see the Perspective by Reznick and Travis). They wanted to determine which selective parameters could be used to foresee changes, despite varying environmental conditions. One morph fit a model of negative frequency-dependent selection, likely owing to predation, but changes in other morph frequencies remained unpredictable. Thus, for specific cases, we can forecast short-term changes within populations, but evolution is more difficult to predict when it involves a balance between multiple selective factors and uncertainty in environmental conditions.According to Zach Gompert at Utah State University, one of the authors, the predictability is hardly surprising: brown stick insects would be found on brown plants, and green stick insects would be found on green plants. The reason is that birds can more easily see the out-of-place morphs and eat them. This explains why out-of-place insects would be missing, but says little about the arrival of the camouflaged species. A USU press release says that the team analyzed 25 years’ worth of data to try to figure out if evolution is predictable.“With the green versus green-striped morphs, the cause of selection was simple and well understood facilitation of predictability,” Gompert says. “In contrast, with the melanistic morph, natural selection was more complex and tied to variation in weather and climate, making it harder to predict from past patterns of change.”The scientists compared their results to better known studies, including Darwin’s finches and the scarlet tiger moth, both of which were also not very predictable.“Our findings support previous discoveries and suggest evolution of morph frequencies in these stick insects is indeed a result of selection,” Gompert says. “They also suggest poor predictability of environmental variation and how it affects selection, rather than random evolutionary processes, might be the main limits on predicting evolution.”While we can use the past to predict change, he says, we’re constrained by our lack of knowledge of the future and complex ecological processes that contribute to change.c. Brett Miller. Used by permission.It’s hard to characterize any of this data support for evolution being predictable. They’re basically saying, ‘evolution is predictable except when it isn’t.’ Reznick and Travis sum up the results:Evolution is like population dynamics because evolutionary change over time can be governed by multiple factors, the relative influence of which vary over time. Nosil et al. used a series of observational data taken over 25 years on natural populations in combination with experiments to show that in one case, evolution can be predicted very well, but in another, it cannot. More generally, they show that without deep biological knowledge, we cannot understand either past or future, much less predict the future from the past.The problem is not just with stick insects. It extends to all of biology:Questionable predictability is not specific to stick insects. Nosil et al. analyzed data sets for other long-term studies of evolution in various species, including Galapagos finches and the peppered moth, and show that they also offer low temporal predictability. In these cases, the likely cause is also multiple forms of selection the strength of which varies over time.Interesting that they would present finches and peppered moths, both of which are “icons of evolution” featured in the list by Jonathan Wells, yet say they were subject to ‘multiple forms of selection.’ Why not simple ‘natural selection’ that strikes so many evolutionists as intuitively obvious? Now, we find, things are not so obvious after all. It’s complicated to predict even one thing on which natural selection might act:These results show that an iconic example of a simple trait subjected to a single agent of strong selection is actually much more complicated. Similar lessons have been taught by other seemingly simple phenomena. For example, the complex ways in which known agents of selection on the color polymorphism of Cepaea snails meant that “each population is subject to a unique explanation”. This is in stark contrast to studies of microbial, viral, and immune system selection, for which evolution seems to be highly predictable. Why this is the case, when it is not so in organisms such as stick insects and others, is a new challenge for evolutionary biologists.So the environment is unpredictable, selection is unpredictable, and mutations are clearly random. Adding three random factors together does not improve on randomness. After 158 years of Darwinian evolution, what has been accomplished to improve scientific understanding other than to say, “Stuff happens”?We like to periodically back up our claim that Darwinism reduces to the Stuff Happens Law. It explains everything; it explains nothing. This is how a stupid idea can put on invisible royal robes and masquerade as an emperor of understanding. Look at these proofs of the Stuff Happens Law we presented earlier. Don’t you feel wiser knowing them?Why the Stuff Happens Law is ScientificIt is reductive: all events can be reduced to this law.It makes predictions: Stuff will happen.It is universal: Stuff always happens.It is normative, not just descriptive: Given matter in motion, stuff must happen.It is falsifiable: If nothing happens, the law has been disproved.It is practical: If something happens, you know you will find stuff around.Corollaries can be derived from it: e.g., Stuff happens at the worst possible time, Bad stuff happens to good people, Murphy’s Law, etc.Impressed? Darwin’s laws of nature are about as helpful to the understanding of nature as the Stuff Happens Law. Your science might be healthier with a bit of Cole’s Law (i.e., thinly sliced cabbage). (Visited 606 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
13 March 2012 After rising by 5.0 percent in January, employment in South Africa registered an annualised growth rate of 1.5 percent in February, according to the latest Adcorp Employment Index, released on Monday. The index is regarded as the most representative barometer of employment trends in South Africa. During the month, the economy created 24 000 jobs, slowing from the 80 000 jobs created in January. Most of the jobs were created in the informal sector, about 22 000 or 91.7 percent of the total, Adcorp reported. In the formal sector, employment growth was strongest in the manufacturing sector, with 5.3 percent, the construction sector, with 4.7 percent, and the wholesale and retail trade, with 3.5 percent. This was the first time in more than 12 months that job growth in the production-oriented sectors exceeded job growth in the consumption-oriented sectors. Mining employment, however, continued to shrink, with a loss of 3 000 jobs in February. High-skilled employment – that of senior managers and professions – reported the strongest growth in terms of occupational categories.It grew 5.3 percent, whereas low-skilled employment, trades and elementary workers, reported the steepest decline. It registered -1.3 percent. About 68 percent of all South African workers were employed by small businesses employing fewer than 50 people. Against this backdrop, 440 000 small business closures were observed over the past five years, according to Adcorp, while the number of new business start-ups had fallen to an all-time low. Adcorp noted that the small business sector was the most important originator of jobs in SA.Sapa
The Minister’s remarks were delivered by Executive Director of the WCJF, Dr. Zoe Simpson, during a recent ceremony at the entity’s Trafalgar Road headquarters in St. Andrew to hand over 10 copies of a book titled ‘Triumphs’ to the girls. Minister of Culture, Gender, Entertainment and Sport, Hon. Olivia Grange, says the programme of the Women’s Centre of Jamaica Foundation (WCJF) is a story of “triumph”, enabling girls who drop out of school on account of pregnancy to continue their education.“Through the work of the WCJF, over 47,000 adolescent mothers have triumphed over their circumstances,” she said.The Minister’s remarks were delivered by Executive Director of the WCJF, Dr. Zoe Simpson, during a recent ceremony at the entity’s Trafalgar Road headquarters in St. Andrew to hand over 10 copies of a book titled ‘Triumphs’ to the girls.The book, written by journalist Garfield Angus, is a gift from law firm Lex Caribbean Jamaica. It is a collection of short stories about personal struggles and victories.Minister Grange said she is happy for the donation at a time when the Centre celebrates its 40th anniversary. The WCJF was established in 1978 as a response to the high rate of adolescent pregnancies in Jamaica.Dr. Simpson, in her own remarks, said that the inspirational stories contained in the book will help to foster a spirit of resilience and motivate the reader to push on to success.“The adolescent mothers are faced with challenges of their own. I am, therefore, delighted that the girls will be able to benefit from the publication that will motivate them to overcome their challenges,” she noted.She added that the stories are positive reminders that “just like Martin in the ‘Hard Road to Success’, Jamaicans do not succumb to adverse situations, but, instead, just like Antoinette in ‘Life without Dependency’, we work hard and remain determined to live out our dreams”.Dr. Simpson thanked the author of the book and Lex Caribbean for making the donation possible.“We all need inspiration in our lives to help us understand and maximise our full potential,” she said. “Through the work of the WCJF, over 47,000 adolescent mothers have triumphed over their circumstances,” she said. Minister of Culture, Gender, Entertainment and Sport, Hon. Olivia Grange, says the programme of the Women’s Centre of Jamaica Foundation (WCJF) is a story of “triumph”, enabling girls who drop out of school on account of pregnancy to continue their education. Story Highlights
zoomImage Courtesy: Stena Bulk The detained tanker Stena Impero has finally been released and is sailing to Dubai, according to the ship’s owner Stena Bulk.“Stena Bulk and Northern Marine Management confirm the Stena Impero and its crew have been released,” Erik Hanell, President and CEO of Stena Bulk, said.“The vessel has left the port of Bandar Abbas and is transiting to Dubai for the crew to disembark and receive medical checks and de-briefing.”Hanell further noted that the families of crew members have been informed and the company is making arrangements for the repatriation of the sixteen seafarers “at the earliest possible opportunity.”Iran’s Ports & Maritime Organization said that, although the ship ban was lifted, the process of investigating violations and announcing the final results of the legal proceeds is ongoing.The 46,575 cbm ship was detained near the Strait of Hormuz for alleged marine violations on July 19, only weeks after the Royal Marines and Gibraltar authorities seized the Iranian tanker Adrian Darya 1, previously named Grace 1, due to suspicions of violating EU sanctions on Syria.Iran later released seven of the 23 Stena Impero crew members as the ship’s owner, Stena Bulk, requested the removal of non-essential personnel.