V̇o2 was measured for specimens of the Antarctic brachiopod Liothyrella uva and limpet Nacella concinna, using couloximetric techniques. Time-course studies revealed different responses to starvation by each species. N. concinna initially responded with a rise in V̇o2 (68%) which lasted for ≈ 14 days, followed by a decline to a steady (basal) level which was reached 30–50 days after the start. The fed V̇o2 was 1.29 times the basal rate. L. uva did not show the initial rise in V̇o2 but exhibited a steady decline, resulting i basal rates after 25–30 days. Both species did, however, show a similar response in basal V̇o2 to 1.5 °C increments in temperature. This was a rise in V̇o2 to a peak which was reached between 2 and 7 days after the rise in temperature, followed by a decline to another steady level. In both species, acclimated and acute V̇o2 showed larger responses to 1.5 °C increments at lower temperatures than at higher ones. Acclimated V̇o2 essentially rose with each temperature increment to a plateau in both species and remained at those levels until the upper lethal temperature was reached. The brachiopods survived from an initial starting temperature of − 1.5 to 4.5 °C while the limpets had a much larger temperature range, from − 1.5 to 9.0 °C. Q10 coefficients reflected these patterns, declining with temperature. The highest figures for L. uva were obtained at the − 1.5 to 0.0 °C step and were 1.97 for acclimated rates and 9.73 for acute responses. The overall Q10 values ( − 1.5 to 3.0 °C) were 1.46 and 3.09, respectively. For N. concinna, the − 1.5 to 0.0 °C values were 3.17 (acclimated) and 34.19 (acute) and the overall figures (− 1.5 to 9.0 °C) were 2.41 and 15.62, respectively. This suggests that low Q10 values (≤2.5) are appropriate for use with cold-water species.
Dec 3, 2004 (CIDRAP News) – Avian influenza is expected to cost Asia $130 billion by 2005, according to Hur Young-joo of the South Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare, as reported in the Dec 2 online edition of The Korea Times.Of that $130 billion, $60 billion has been spent in China since 2003, Hur said. The estimate was attributed to Oxford Economic Forecasting Ltd., a United Kingdom firm that provides economic analysis, forecasting, and models for businesses. Information about which Asian countries were included and how the figure was developed was not available.Hur’s remarks came in advance of an international conference on zoonoses, which began today in Seoul, South Korea.About 170 experts were expected to participate, including representatives from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, the World Health Organization, and the World Organization for Animal Health, the newspaper reported.An official from South Korea’s Ministry of Health and Welfare was quoted as saying, “We seek to prepare a global network for efficient cooperation against epidemics in order to minimize damages from the diseases.”Zoonotic diseases are an area of growing concern for a number of reasons, but avian influenza in Asia has been dominating the news. Experts increasingly worry that the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian flu, which has killed 32 people in Vietnam and Thailand this year, could trigger a human flu pandemic.South Korea hasn’t had avian flu since March, but officials have strengthened quarantine measures in the country and designated the November-to-February period as a time to be on special alert for the disease, the paper reported.