Temperature and basal metabolism in two Antarctic marine herbivores

first_imgV̇o2 was measured for specimens of the Antarctic brachiopod Liothyrella uva and limpet Nacella concinna, using couloximetric techniques. Time-course studies revealed different responses to starvation by each species. N. concinna initially responded with a rise in V̇o2 (68%) which lasted for ≈ 14 days, followed by a decline to a steady (basal) level which was reached 30–50 days after the start. The fed V̇o2 was 1.29 times the basal rate. L. uva did not show the initial rise in V̇o2 but exhibited a steady decline, resulting i basal rates after 25–30 days. Both species did, however, show a similar response in basal V̇o2 to 1.5 °C increments in temperature. This was a rise in V̇o2 to a peak which was reached between 2 and 7 days after the rise in temperature, followed by a decline to another steady level. In both species, acclimated and acute V̇o2 showed larger responses to 1.5 °C increments at lower temperatures than at higher ones. Acclimated V̇o2 essentially rose with each temperature increment to a plateau in both species and remained at those levels until the upper lethal temperature was reached. The brachiopods survived from an initial starting temperature of − 1.5 to 4.5 °C while the limpets had a much larger temperature range, from − 1.5 to 9.0 °C. Q10 coefficients reflected these patterns, declining with temperature. The highest figures for L. uva were obtained at the − 1.5 to 0.0 °C step and were 1.97 for acclimated rates and 9.73 for acute responses. The overall Q10 values ( − 1.5 to 3.0 °C) were 1.46 and 3.09, respectively. For N. concinna, the − 1.5 to 0.0 °C values were 3.17 (acclimated) and 34.19 (acute) and the overall figures (− 1.5 to 9.0 °C) were 2.41 and 15.62, respectively. This suggests that low Q10 values (≤2.5) are appropriate for use with cold-water species.last_img read more

Military and Police Cooperate to Improve Public Safety in Guatemala

first_img“We have received support from friendly nations, cooperation that includes non-lethal equipment and special training for Military operations other than war. The plan we have followed for the last few years, on the orders of President Otto Pérez Molina, has been to recover capabilities in security, use those capabilities to complement law enforcement efforts, and to support the safety of civilians,” Minister of Defense Manuel López Ambrocio said on June 30, 2014. And their joint cooperative efforts are having a positive impact. For example, as of December 15, there were 4,748 killings in the country in 2014, compared to 5,155 in 2013. The security force was launched in 2000, and its 4,500 Military service members and 3,000 PNC officers concentrate their efforts in Guatemala City as well as the Departments of Zacapa, Escuintla and Huehuetenango. Ongoing cooperation The Army will continue to cooperate with the PNC to improve public safety while the police force trains the number of officers it needs to ensure security throughout the country, according to Defense Minister Ambrocio. Army Soldiers are supporting police efforts to improve security in a variety of ways. In 2014, the Army participated in 115,154 civilian security operations, which included more than 42,600 foot patrols; 26,620 security and search checkpoints; 20,040 vehicle patrols; 5,700 searches and seizures; and more than 2,000 security operations at bus stops. In addition to their Military training, Soldiers who are assigned to the Joint Security Force receive additional education on how to protect human rights and the best ways to deal with the civilian population, according to Army Colonel Manuel Pineda, Chief of the Army’s Sixth Squad. Army Soldiers are supporting police efforts to improve security in a variety of ways. In 2014, the Army participated in 115,154 civilian security operations, which included more than 42,600 foot patrols; 26,620 security and search checkpoints; 20,040 vehicle patrols; 5,700 searches and seizures; and more than 2,000 security operations at bus stops. The security force was launched in 2000, and its 4,500 Military service members and 3,000 PNC officers concentrate their efforts in Guatemala City as well as the Departments of Zacapa, Escuintla and Huehuetenango. And their joint cooperative efforts are having a positive impact. For example, as of December 15, there were 4,748 killings in the country in 2014, compared to 5,155 in 2013. But by the end of 2015, the PNC will have 35,000 officers, and the Joint Security Force might be disbanded, according to Minister of Internal Affairs Mauricio López Bonilla. “We have received support from friendly nations, cooperation that includes non-lethal equipment and special training for Military operations other than war. The plan we have followed for the last few years, on the orders of President Otto Pérez Molina, has been to recover capabilities in security, use those capabilities to complement law enforcement efforts, and to support the safety of civilians,” Minister of Defense Manuel López Ambrocio said on June 30, 2014. In 2013, law enforcement authorities recorded 4,226 homicides that were committed with firearms. That number was reduced to 3,932 in 2014. In 2013, there were 566 killings committed with knives and other bladed weapons. The number of such homicides went down to 484 in 2014. The goal is not to replace the civilian law enforcement forces, but to support them until those forces reach the quantitative and qualitative levels set forth in the government’s plan, Ambrocio said. International cooperation is an important component of the initiative. In addition to their Military training, Soldiers who are assigned to the Joint Security Force receive additional education on how to protect human rights and the best ways to deal with the civilian population, according to Army Colonel Manuel Pineda, Chief of the Army’s Sixth Squad. Soldiers trained to work with civilian population In 2013, law enforcement authorities recorded 4,226 homicides that were committed with firearms. That number was reduced to 3,932 in 2014. In 2013, there were 566 killings committed with knives and other bladed weapons. The number of such homicides went down to 484 in 2014. The goal is not to replace the civilian law enforcement forces, but to support them until those forces reach the quantitative and qualitative levels set forth in the government’s plan, Ambrocio said. Military service members who work alongside police officers are divided into nine squads; six of these are assigned to Guatemala City, with the other three conducting operations in various departments. There are 10 task forces within the squads, each of which combats a particular type of crime, such as robbery or extortion. Soldiers trained to work with civilian population Military service members who work alongside police officers are divided into nine squads; six of these are assigned to Guatemala City, with the other three conducting operations in various departments. There are 10 task forces within the squads, each of which combats a particular type of crime, such as robbery or extortion. “Once we arrive at that point, we are prepared to withdraw from the scene and focus on increasing our abilities in our own areas, and therefore we are beginning modernization processes within the military’s scope, for example, recovery of mobility; special, individual equipment; tactical communications; and weaponry,” he explained. Guatemala’s Joint Security Force, which consists of Army Soldiers and National Civil Police (PNC) officers, improves public safety by conducting patrols and vehicle searches and capturing dangerous suspects. The Army will continue to cooperate with the PNC to improve public safety while the police force trains the number of officers it needs to ensure security throughout the country, according to Defense Minister Ambrocio. By Dialogo February 05, 2015 Guatemala’s Joint Security Force, which consists of Army Soldiers and National Civil Police (PNC) officers, improves public safety by conducting patrols and vehicle searches and capturing dangerous suspects. When conducting patrols, Troops and police officers typically work in teams which consist of two Soldiers and one police officer. Checkpoints, where Troops and police officers verify that vehicles have not been stolen and are not transporting contraband, such as illegal weapons, ammunition, or drugs, are comprised of two Military members and two police officers. International cooperation is an important component of the initiative. When conducting patrols, Troops and police officers typically work in teams which consist of two Soldiers and one police officer. Checkpoints, where Troops and police officers verify that vehicles have not been stolen and are not transporting contraband, such as illegal weapons, ammunition, or drugs, are comprised of two Military members and two police officers. But by the end of 2015, the PNC will have 35,000 officers, and the Joint Security Force might be disbanded, according to Minister of Internal Affairs Mauricio López Bonilla. Ongoing cooperation “Once we arrive at that point, we are prepared to withdraw from the scene and focus on increasing our abilities in our own areas, and therefore we are beginning modernization processes within the military’s scope, for example, recovery of mobility; special, individual equipment; tactical communications; and weaponry,” he explained.last_img read more

Long Ireland Brews Up Good ‘Craic’ in Riverhead’s Polish Town

first_imgSign up for our COVID-19 newsletter to stay up-to-date on the latest coronavirus news throughout New York West of downtown Riverhead is historic Polish Town, which pays tribute to the traditions of Poland’s welcoming spirit demonstrated at the Polish Town Fair that attracts thousands every August.Since 2011, another proud European heritage of fun entertainment, called ‘craic’— pronounced “crack,” it means fun in Gaelic — has been celebrated in Polish Town at the Long Ireland Beer Company brewery and tasting room. It was founded nearly a decade ago by longtime friends Dan Burke and Greg Martin, who, like many home brewers, dreamed of their own brewery. They apprenticed and contract brewed their favorite recipe at Connecticut’s New England Brewing Company. They set up shop after getting a positive response to this beer, which they named Celtic Ale.“We must have home brewed this beer 60 to 70 times in our garage,” says Martin, “until we got the recipe to where we wanted it.”They settled on a 9,000-square-foot Pulaski Street building that formerly housed an Agway store. Long Ireland became such an integral part of the neighborhood that in 2014 it brewed the special Polish Town Pilsner for the Polish Town Fair’s 40th anniversary. The Polish-style lager, made with pilsner malt and traditional Saaz, Czech and Tettnang hops, is so popular that it is now available all year.Year-round offerings are still led by the flagship Celtic Ale, a malty red ale similar to Irish Reds like Smithwick’s but with richer malt flavor and lower carbonation. The recipe uses four malts: two-row pale malt, caramel, Vienna and chocolate. Flaked oats and honey give it a sweet flavor with hints of toffee, one hop, Willamette, provides just mild bitterness for a smooth finish.Other popular beers include a refreshing Raspberry Wheat and seasonal brews such as Summer Ale, Pumpkin Ale, Winter Ale, NoFo Farmhouse Saison Ale, Chocolate Porter, and the delicious Black Friday Imperial Stout, released on the day after Thanksgiving. One of Long Ireland’s original offerings, Breakfast Stout, was retired but replaced by a dry Irish-style stout, Hooligan Irish Stout, which may soon join the year-round offerings.Long Ireland also recognized growing demand for hoppy pale ales and IPAs by brewing special beers including single hopped beers like Mos Def Mosaic IPA and Balor IPA, made with Citra hops and named after a one-eyed giant from Irish mythology. The brewery also uses hops from local farms, such as the Fresh Hop Co-Op Session IPA brewed last fall with a blend of Centennial and Chinook hops picked from L.I. Hops in Jamesport and Wesnofske Farms and North Fork Hops in Southold.The brewery kept up with the canned-beer trend and last year shifted production from bottles to cans. A recently installed canning line will produce 50 cases per hour of both 12-ounce and 16-ounce cans.“The new line will give us more flexibility to do short runs of innovative beers that we can put out to local beer stores that have really supported us,” says Martin.Long Ireland has been distributed across LI and New York City by Clare Rose since 2012 and hopes to expand distribution later this year.“We’re currently producing around 4,000 barrels a year,” adds Martin. “But we’ve got plenty of room to expand at this location.”Long Ireland is also well known for the popular events it hosts at the brewery. The Long Ireland Pintwood Derby is a take-off on the old Boy Scout car races, and draws sellout crowds to the brewery. Its Halfway to St. Patrick’s Party in mid-September and 5K running races are held in summer and fall.Long Ireland also hosts fun events during the week in its tasting room, including Retro Video Game Night in collaboration with East End Gaming and Vinyl Night with Riverhead’s Sunday Records. Local business Brew Crew Cycles, just relocated next door and the brewery will continue to be a popular stop on the group bike tours offered  beginning in April.“We love to do cross-promotions with other local businesses and help our community grow and thrive,” says Martin.Long Ireland Beer Company is located at 817 Pulaski St. in Riverhead. They can be reached at 631-403-4303 or longirelandbeer.com.last_img read more